Organizations such as Google, Amazon and Facebook posses sheer size, scale and distribution of data that pose a new class of challenges for networking, one which traditional networking vendors cannot meet. According to Google’s team:
Ten years ago, we realized that we could not purchase, at any price, a datacenter network that could meet the combination of our scale and speed requirements.
Facebook engineering team ran into much similar problems. Late last year Facebook published its datacenter networking architecture, called “data center fabric”, which is meant to meet this exact challenge, and has continued this year expanding the architecture.
Now Google is joining the game, sharing their in-house datacenter network architecture in a new paper published this week. The current (5th) generation of Google’s architecture, called Jupiter, is able to deliver more than 1 petabit/sec of total bisection bandwidth. This means that each of 100,000 servers can communicate with one another in an arbitrary pattern at 10Gb/s. The new architecture also means substantially improved efficiency of the compute and storage infrastructure, and ultimately much higher utilization in jobs scheduling.
Google based its new networking architecture on the principle of Software-Defined Netowrking (SDN). Using the SDN approach, Google was able to escape the traditional distributed networking protocols with their slow dissemination, high bandwidth overhead and manual switch configurations, and move to a single global configuration for the entire network that is then pushed to all switches, with each switch taking its part of the scheme.
Google has been an advocate of SDN for quite some time, and is a member of the Open Networking Foundation (ONF), a consortium of industry leaders such as Facebook, Microsoft, Deutsche Telecom, Verizon and of course Google, promoting open standards for SDN, primarily the OpenFlow project which Google fully adopted.
SDN and network virtualization have been major trends in the networking realm, especially with cloud-based deployments with their highly distributed, scalable and dynamic environments. All major cloud vendors have been innovating in their next gen networking. Most notably, Google has been actively competing with Amazon on driving its cloud networking to next gen, where Google presented its Andromeda project for network virtualization.
The big players will continue to forefront the networking and scalability challenges of the new cloud and distributed era, and will lead innovation in that field. The open approach that was adopted by the big players, with open standards, open source and sharing with the community, will enable the smaller players to benefit from this innovation and push the industry forward.
You can read Google’s paper on Jupiter here.
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